A set of four questions that takes emergency department nurses or physicians less than 2 minutes to administer can successfully identify youth at risk for attempting suicide, reported a study by National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) researchers that was published in the December 2012 issue of the Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine.
Horowitz, a clinician and researcher with NIMH, and her colleagues developed a quick questionnaire that ED nurses and physicians could use to assess suicide risk among youth. Their study tested 17 candidate questions in 524 patients ages 10 to 21 years who visited one of three academically-affiliated pediatric EDs and had either psychiatric problems—suicidal ideation, intense anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder—or medical/surgical concerns—gastrointestinal diseases, sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis. The questions—focusing on suicidal thoughts and behavior—were reviewed and revised by a panel of mental health clinicians, health services researchers, and survey specialists. The patients also completed one of two versions of the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ), the “gold standard,” 30-question suicide-screening tool that is used by pediatric and adolescent psychiatrists, but which is too long for ED visits and requires additional training. As part of the study’s safety plan, individuals whose responses indicated that they were at risk for attempting suicide were referred to mental health professionals—social workers, psychiatrists, psychologists—for further evaluation.
Of the 17 candidate questions, four (used as a set) stood out as having the most accuracy for predicting suicide attempts: current thoughts of being better off dead, current wish to die, current suicidal ideation, and history of suicide attempt. Positive responses to 1 or more of these 4 questions identified 97% of the youth at risk for suicide, regardless of whether these patients came in for psychiatric or general medical concerns.
Population of focus: Youth in Emergency Departments
Link to resource: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/science-news/2013/asq_instrument_final.pdf
Reference: Horowitz LM, Bridge JA, Teach SJ, Ballard E, Klima J, Rosenstein DL, Wharff EA, Ginnis K, Cannon E, Joshi P, Pao M. Ask Suicide-Screening Questions (ASQ). A Brief Instrument for the Pediatric Emergency Department. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. December 2012. 166(12):1170–1176.