Pet Ownership Among Homeless Youth: Associations with Mental Health, Service Utilization and Housing Status

Twenty-three percent of homeless youth have pets, according to research from a team led by Harmony Rhoades at the University of Southern California. The team surveyed 398 homeless youth at two drop-in centers in Los Angeles. While previous studies have shown that pets can be very important to homeless young people, this is the first quantitative study to look at pet ownership, mental health, and the use of services among this group.

Eighty-eight percent of the young people in the study had attended the drop-in for food during the previous month. Other services they had used included clothes (69 percent), job help (52 percent), housing (49 percent), and health services (47 percent). Of those with pets, dogs were most common (53 percent), followed by cats (22 percent). Other pets included a hamster, rat, chinchilla, and an iguana.

“Companion animals provide emotional support and represent important, loving relationships in the lives of many homeless youth,” the researchers write.

Pet owners had lower scores for loneliness and depression, and reported many benefits to having a pet. Eighty-five percent agreed that “my pet keeps me company,” 79 percent said the pet “makes me feel loved,” and 73 percent said the pet “makes me feel safe.”

There was no difference in having been hurt or threatened on the street, but those with pets were more likely to report having carried a weapon. There were also no differences in being hit or seeing someone be hit at home. Among those who were living with family, however, there was a trend for those with pets to be more likely to experience or witness violence in the home. This suggests some young people may be staying in a violent situation because it’s better for their pet.

The biggest difficulty for those with pets was that nearly half of them (49 percent) said it was harder for them to stay at a shelter. Most shelters do not allow pets. Although those with and without pets were equally likely to be living on the street, only 4 percent of those with pets were staying in a shelter or housing program, compared to 17 percent of those without pets.

Other reported problems included it being tricky to find housing (16 percent) and hard to see a doctor (11 percent). Those with pets were less likely than those without to have accessed some services (housing and job help), but not others (including food, clothes, and health services).

Population of focus: Homeless youth

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Date: 2015

Journal: Child Psychiatry & Human Development